Below is a comprehensive list of drugs and substances that are used and abused. Although various drugs are available regionally, all areas have certain mainstay substances such as alcohol and marijuana. Not all dependent folks are users or abusers, many have dependencies on various medications that are innocently prescribed by their doctor.

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Opiates

Roxicodone® or Oxycodone

Oxycodone is an opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. Its name is derived from codeine – the chemical structures are very similar. Oxycodone is used in treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain. Abusers crush the tablets, then either ingest the resulting powder orally, intranasally, or intravenous.Oxycodone has similar effects to morphine and heroin, and appeals to the same abuse community. Roxicodone is available in 5, 15, and 30 mg tablets.

Vicodin® Addiction

Vicodin® is the brand name for the combination of acetaminophen (Tylenol) and hydrocodone. Vicodin® is prescribed for moderate to moderately severe pain. Hydrocodone binds to the pain receptors in the brain so that the sensation of pain is reduced. Acetaminophen halts the production of prostaglandins which otherwise cause pain. Vicodin® is available in tablet, capsule, and liquid form and is taken every 4-6 hours by mouth. Hydrocodone can be habit forming.

Hydrocodone Addiction

Hydrocodone is an effective antitussive (anti-cough) agent, and as an opiate it is also an effective analgesic for mild to moderate pain control. Hydrocodone is considered to be morphine-like in all respects. Sales and production of this drug have increased significantly in recent years (a four-fold increase between 1990 and 2000), as have diversion and illicit use. Trade names include Anexsia®, Hycodan®, Hycomine®, Lorcet®, Lortab®, Tussionex®, Tylox®, Vicodin®, and Vicoprofen®, Norco®, Zydone®, Tramadol®, Lortab®, and Lorcet®. These are available as tablets, capsules, and/or syrups. Generally; this drug is abused by oral rather than intravenous administration.

Heroin Addiction

Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and its use is a serious problem in the United States. Recent studies suggest a shift from injecting heroin to snorting or smoking because of the increased purity and the misconception that these behaviors will not lead to dependency. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder. Street names for heroin include “smack,” “H,” “skag,” and “junk.” Other names may refer to types of heroin produced in a specific geographical area, such as “Mexican black tar.”

Heroin Health Hazards

Heroin abuse is associated with serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, collapsed veins, and infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear shortly after a single dose and disappear in a few hours. After a heroin injection, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria (“rush”) accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heaviness in the extremities. Following this initial euphoria, the user goes “on the nod,” a state of alternating wakefulness and drowsiness. Heroin depresses the central nervous system which clouds the user’s mental functioning.

Codeine Addiction

Codeine is a prescription medication which relieves mild to moderate pain. It was originally discovered as a naturally occurring constituent of opium. However, today’s pharmaceutical-grade codeine is produced by methylating morphine. Codeine comes alone or combined with another painkiller such as Tylenol® (acetaminophen). It is formulated into tablets, capsules or liquid to be taken orally. Codeine and codeine-combo preparations are usually taken every 4-6 hours. Codeine can be habit forming.

Darvocet® Addiction

Darvocet® is a combination of acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and propoxyphene designed to relieve mild to moderate pain. Propoxyphene binds to the pain receptors in the brain so that the sensation of pain is reduced. Acetaminophen halts the production of prostaglandins which otherwise cause pain. It is formulated as a tablet taken every 4 hours by mouth. Since propoxyphene can be habit forming, care must be taken to follow the doctor’s instructions when taking Darvocet.

Dilaudid® Addiction

Dilaudid® is a preparation of hydromorphone, a very potent painkiller. Hydromorphone inhibits the ascending pain pathways in the central nervous system, increases the pain threshold and alters pain perception. Dilaudid® is formulated as oral tablets and liquid, rectal suppository, intra-muscular (buttock or hip muscle) injection, and intravenous (I.V.) solution. Dosing is every 4-6 hours for the oral forms and every 6-8 hours for the suppository. An I.V. drip allows for continuous administration and around-the-clock pain relief. Since hydromorphone can be habit forming, care must be taken to follow the doctor’s instructions when taking Dilaudid®.

Lorcet® Addiction

Lorcet® is the brand name for the combination of acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and hydrocodone. Lorcet® is prescribed for moderate to moderately severe pain. Hydrocodone binds to the pain receptors in the brain so that the sensation of pain is reduced. Acetaminophen halts the production of prostaglandins which otherwise cause pain. Lorcet® is available in tablet, capsule, and liquid form and is taken every 4-6 hours by mouth. Since hydrocodone can be habit forming, care must be taken to follow the doctor’s instructions when taking Lorcet®.

Lortab® Addiction

Lortab® is the brand name for the combination of acetaminophen (Tylenol) and hydrocodone. Lortab® is prescribed for moderate to moderately severe pain. Hydrocodone binds to the pain receptors in the brain so that the sensation of pain is reduced. Acetaminophen halts the production of prostaglandins which otherwise cause pain. It is available in tablet, capsule, and liquid form and is taken every 4-6 hours by mouth. Since hydrocodone can be habit forming, care must be taken to follow the doctor’s instructions when taking Lortab®.

Methadone Addiction

Methadone is a synthetic substance with pharmacological properties similar to morphine and heroin. Methadone is prescribed for patients with severe pain, such as those with serious injuries or those who have undergone major surgery. Methadone works in the brain to decrease the sensation of pain and to mute the emotional response to pain. It comes as tablets, dispersible tablets, liquid, and liquid concentrate. Patients take it every 3-4 hours for severe pain and every 6-8 hours for chronic pain. Since methadone can be as addictive as morphine and heroin, care must be taken to follow the doctor’s instructions. Do not take a larger dose, or take it more frequently, or take it for longer than the doctor has prescribed. Methadone is one of the most difficult drugs to detox from since its effects are long-lasting and it is readily stored in the body’s tissue. Start Detoxing Now

Ultram® Addiction

Ultram® (tramadol) is used to relieve severe pain. ultram may be used to treat pain caused by surgery and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia or arthritis. Ultram is an opiate (narcotic) analgesics. Ultram® works by decreasing the body’s sense of pain. Ultram® is habit-forming if abused. Ultram should only be taken under a doctors care and orders. Ultram can produce addiction as easily as any other opiate. Withdrawal symptoms are similar to other short acting opiates.

Oxycontin® Addiction

OxyContin® is the brand name for the time-release formula of oxycodone, a narcotic analgesic for moderate to severe pain. It is used to treat terminally ill cancer patients and chronic pain sufferers as well as relieving postpartum, postoperative and dental pain. OxyContin® comes in liquid and tablet forms taken every 6 hours. Long-acting tablets are available to take every 12 hours. Oxycodone is an opium derivative and is the active ingredient in Percodan® and Percocet®. Oxycodone binds to the pain receptors in the brain so that the sensation of pain is reduced. Since oxycodone can be habit forming, care must be taken to follow the doctor’s instructions when taking OxyContin®. Do not take a larger dose, or take it more frequently, or take it for longer than the doctor has prescribed. Since its FDA approval in 1995, the illegal use of OxyContin® as increased significantly, and the recent OxyContin-related deaths have attracted media attention, thereby illuminating the problem.

 

Alcohol

Alcoholic Beverages

Alcoholic beverages contain ethanol. Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, or a depressant. Ethanol, the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks, for consumption purposes is almost always produced by fermentation–the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast in the absence of oxygen.

Alcoholism

Alcoholism refers to any condition that results in continued consumption of alcoholic beverages despite negative consequences. Medical definitions invariably describe alcoholism as a disease and addiction. Definitions of alcoholism commonly refer to use of alcohol despite one’s own best interests. This generally refers to the development of medical complications, occupational or educational loss, or interpersonal complications as a result of continued use. It is sometimes referred to as a loss of control over one’s alcohol consumption, a preoccupation with or compulsion for alcohol, and an impaired ability to recognize the effects of alcohol consumption.

 

 

Cocaine and Crack Cocaine

Cocaine Addiction

An alkaloid refined from the cocoa plant that acts as a powerful short-acting stimulant and is pharmacologically similar to amphetamines. Its effects include euphoria, restlessness, excitement, and a feeling of well-being. Slang names include “coke,” “flake,” “star dust,” and “snow.” Freebasing, a process of converting cocaine into a form that can be smoked (usually called crack), involves heating with either lighter fluid or other solvents.

Crack Addiction

A more potent form of cocaine in soft “rock” form that is highly addictive.Crack cocaine hydrochloride that has been processed with ammonia or baking soda and water into a freebase cocaine. These chips, chunks or rocks can be smoked. Heavy use of cocaine may produce hallucinations, paranoia, aggression, insomnia and depression. New Beginnings offers treatment that manages withdrawal symptoms and reduces cravings.

 

Benzodiazepines

Xanax® Addiction

Xanax® (Alprazolam) is prescription tranquilizer which depresses the nervous system in a way similar to alcohol. Xanax has found its way from pharmacies to drug dealers, and is being abused by young, healthy people who want to get high. These club-hopping, twenty-something, casual “Xannie poppers” are using the drug in combination with other stimulants, from alcohol to cocaine.

Valium® Addiction

Valium® (Diazapam) is a benzodiazepine with properties of being a sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant drug. Valium is generally used to treat short term moderate to severe anxiety or insomnia. The drug has been shown to lead to the development of tolerance, physiological and psychological dependency when used for long periods.

Klonopin® Addiction

Klonipin® (Clonazepam) is sometimes used recreationally, when used for this function they are often referred to by the slang term “clammies”, or “Klonnies” most commonly as a secondary drug to increase the pleasure resulting from a primary drug, or possibly to lessen or prevent some of the primary drug’s negative side effects.

Rohypnol ® Addiction

Although Rohypnol® (Flunitrazepam) has become widely known in USA for its use as a date-rape drug, it is used more frequently as a recreational drug. It is used by high school and college students, rave party attendees, and heroin and cocaine users (who call a dose of flunitrazepam a “roofie”) for recreational purposes. Long-term use of flunitrazepam can result in psychological and physical dependence and the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

Other Benzodiazepines

Other benzodiazepines are Librium® (chlordiazepoxide), Lexotanil® (bromazepam), ProSom® (estazolam), Dalmane® (flurazepam), Ativan® (lorazepam), Loramet® (lormetazepam), Sedoxil® (mexazolam), Dormicum® (midazolam), Mogadon® (nitrazepam), Serax® (oxazepam), Restoril® (temazepam), Halcion® (triazolam), Tranxene® (clorazepate)

 

Tobacco

Tobacco Addiction

Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. It is commercially available in dried and cured forms and is often smoked in the form of a cigar or cigarette, or in a smoking pipe. All means of consuming tobacco result in the absorption of nicotine in varying amounts into the user’s bloodstream, and over time the development of tolerance and dependence. Long term tobacco use carries significant risks of developing various cancers as well as strokes, and severe cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

 

Methamphetamines

Pill Forms – Adderall®, Desoxyn®, Dexedrine®, Didrex® Addiction

Prescription stimulants commonly used to treat ADHD in adults and children. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Initially it was more popularly used to diminish the appetite and to control weight. The drug is also used illegally as a recreational club drug and as a performance enhancer.Tolerance is developed rapidly in amphetamine abuse, therefore increasing the amount of the drug that is needed to satisfy the addiction. Many abusers will repeat the amphetamine cycle by taking more of the drug during the withdrawal.

Crystal Meth and Ice Addiction

Methamphetamine popularly shortened to “meth” and “Ice”, are psycostimulant drugs. Methamphetamine is potentially addictive, particularly when injected or smoked. While not life-threatening, withdrawal is often intense and, as with all addictions, relapse is common. “Smoking” methamphetamine actually refers to vaporizing it to produce fumes, rather than burning and inhaling the resulting smoke, as with tobacco. It is commonly smoked in glass pipes, or in aluminum foil heated by a flame underneath.

MDMA, Ecstasy , XTC, Adam, MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine

MDMA (a stimulant drug that is chemically related to mescaline and amphetamine and is used illicitly for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects; it was formerly used in psychotherapy but in 1985 it was declared illegal in the United States) “MDMA is often used at parties because it enables partygoers to remain active for long periods of time”.

 

Marijuana / THC

Marijuana / THC

Marijuana is harvested from the flowering portion and leaves of the hemp plant. It is typically either green or brown in color and consists of shredded leaves, whole flowers (buds), stems, and/or seeds. Marijuana is typically smoked in a pipe, water pipe (bong), or rolled into a cigarette (joint). In recent years, marijuana has appeared in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana. THC (D9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active ingredient in Marijuana and is responsible for producing the desired effects.

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